Reading Comprehension Set 191

Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

India can increase its GDP by up to 60% by 2025 by enabling more women to participate in its workforce, a 2015 study by the McKinsey Global Institute had stated. However, social and cultural constraints can prevent this from becoming a reality. Many women who work outside home still have primary household and parenting responsibilities that need to be balanced with their work life. Studies estimate that India’s ambitious target of achieving 175 GW of renewable energy (RE) by 2022 could create 3,30,000 jobs in the wind and solar energy sectors alone. Can this rapidly growing industry create jobs and entrepreneurial opportunities for women? And can these opportunities provide better salaries and health-care benefits, skilling and training opportunities, and enhance the quality of life for women and their families? What can decision-makers — in government and in the private sector — do to support the inclusion of more women in this growing sector?
The problem and the opportunity are both clear. According to the World Bank, more than 270 million Indians live in poverty. Further, studies by the International Energy Agency, an autonomous intergovernmental organisation, show that about 240 million people lack basic electricity services. The government has committed to installing 175 GW of RE by 2022. Several of these installations will be in rural areas, where a large number of the poor live. Can the new RE projects be planned in a manner that also creates good quality jobs for women in these areas? Currently, India’s RE industry sector, as with other sectors, has low participation of women. India ranks a poor 120 among 131 countries on female labour force participation, according to World Bank data. A majority of women currently employed in the RE sector work at project sites, doing civil masonry work, which is temporary and labour-intensive with little potential for future growth. Moreover, the working conditions on many sites are not always suitable for women as they are devoid of safety and support systems.

Where there is a need for more skilled or semi-skilled labour, fewer women can respond due to existing barriers to formal education and training. Technical training institutes do not admit applicants who have not graduated Class 12. And even where they meet the prerequisite for admission into training institutes, the institutes tend to be located in towns and cities, making it difficult for rural women to effectively participate, especially when they are also expected to carry out other household responsibilities. Consequently, there are very few women in production, facilities, and operations and maintenance roles in the RE sector.
So, what will it take for women from poorer and rural communities to access jobs in the RE sector? In a recent study, we found that jobs in the RE sector can impact poverty, provided several “tweaks” are made to the existing systems. Particularly with the growth of the decentralised RE and off-grid energy sector, there is significant potential to include local women in the workforce. Overall, the study concluded that if the government, clean energy enterprises, training institutes and civil society work together to implement these “tweaks”, India could create good-quality employment opportunities that can support the inclusion of more women. But such interventions need to be designed with women at the centre and not as an afterthought.
Training institutes could reduce the bar on entry, allowing for less formally educated women to learn new skills and receive training. Training should be customised to respect specific needs like location, hours of engagement, safety and sanitation. Mobile training modules that can cater to small groups of women in remote areas can be developed. Training institutes and civil society organisations should collaborate and strengthen connections with clean energy enterprises to help trained women secure employment. This sensitisation to women’s specific needs can help increase participation of women in the RE workforce. If the public and private sectors come together to bring such jobs to women, particularly in poorer communities, India’s transition to clean energy could also improve the quality of life for women and their families.

Q1. As per the passage, what are the reasons that hinder women participation in workforce in India?
(a) Marriage at an early age
(b) Social and Cultural Restrictions
(c) Lack of funds.
(d) Household and parenting responsibilities.
(e) None of the Above

Q2. What is the plight of women currently employed in the Renewable Energy  sector?
(I) Temporary and Labour-intensive work
(II) Unsuitable working conditions and lack of safety
(III) Less scope for future growth
(a) Only (I)
(b) Only (II)
(c) Only (III)
(d) Both (I) and (II)
(e) All are correct.

Q3. As per the passage, What are the barriers to formal education and training for women?
(I) Technical training institutes do not admit applicants who have not graduated Class 12.
(II) The institutes tend to be located in towns and cities, making it difficult for rural women to participate.
(III) Civil Masonry work require less number of women.
(a) Only (I)
(b) Only (II)
(c) Only (III)
(d) Both (I) and (II)
(e) All are correct.

Q4. What initiatives can training institutes take to help more women take up training?
(a) Customising training to cater to specific needs like location, safety and sanitation.
(b) Developing mobile training modules to help women in remote areas.
(c) Providing free training to poor women.
(d) Both (a) and (b)
(e) All are correc

Q5. What is the style of writing used by the author in the passage?
(a) Narrative
(b) Analytical
(c) Descriptive
(d) Argumentative
(e) None of the Above

Q6. As per the passage, what amount of renewable energy generation is targetted by India by 2022?
(a) 122GW
(b) 173GW
(c) 175GW
(d) 145GW
(e) 120GW

Q7.  Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR to the word given in passage.
(a) Affluent
(b) Solvent
(c) Secure
(d) Destitute
(e) Surmise

Q8. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR to the word given in passage.
(a) Voluntary
(b) Imperative
(c) Optional
(d) Affinity
(e) Rapport

Q9. Choose the word which is most opposite to the following word given in bold in the passage
(a) Restraint
(b) Goad
(c) Coercion
(d) Liberation
(e) Duress

Q10. Choose the word which is most opposite to the following word given in bold in the passage
(a) Rampart
(b) Palisade
(c) Obstacle
(d) Barricade
(e) Assistance

Directions (11-15): In the passage given below there are blanks which are to be filled with the options given below. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering the meaning of the statement. 

Scripting humour is no light gag. Comedians are always on the job, trying to (11)……….humour in (12)………… life in an effort to build a connection with the audience. “For a beginner, the key is to participate in as many open mics as possible. That’s the best way to (13)…………. your humour and understand what works best for the crowd,” says Manik Mehta, who has been a part of Vizag Komedians from the start. The open mics have not only helped the standup comedy culture grow in the city, but have also helped cafes draw more crowds, in what Mehta describes as a win-win situation. “The city has a lot more potential. The challenge right now is to find newer locations,” he adds. Colleges have also been warming up to standup comedy shows, through their annual festivals. GITAM University recently hosted a (14)……………… by comedian Abish Mathew, while IIM-Visakhapatnam and Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy have also brought in popular names from the standup field. One of the biggest advantages of such shows is that (15)……………. get to open for these established comedians, giving them a moment in the brighter spotlight, and also a chance to watch bigger talents in action.

(a) Sniff away
(b) Sniff off
(c) Sniff out
(d) Sniff in
(e) None of the Above

(a) Synergy
(b) Mundane
(c) Assist
(d) Profound
(e) None of the Above

(a) Hone
(b) Disrespect
(c) Signify
(d) Exaggerate
(e) None of the Above

(a) Ceremony
(b) Gig
(c) fund
(d) amusement
(e) None of the Above

(a) Experienced
(b) Inhabitants
(c) Vagabonds
(d) Amateurs
(e) None of the Above

Answer & Explanation

S1. Ans.(b) Sol. Refer 1st para first three lines.

S2. Ans.(e) Sol. Refer 2nd para last four lines.
S3. Ans.(d) Sol. Refer 3rd para.
S4. Ans.(d) Sol. Refer 5th para first 6 lines.
S5. Ans.(b) Sol. The author uses analytical style of writing.

S6. Ans.(c) Sol. Refer 1st para 5th line.
S7. Ans.(d) Sol. Devoid: entirely lacking or free from.
Destitute: extremely poor and lacking the means to provide for oneself.
S8. Ans.(b) Sol. Prerequisite: a thing that is required as a prior condition for something else to happen or exist.
Imperative: of vital importance; crucial.
S9. Ans.(d) Sol. Constraint: a limitation or restriction.
S10. Ans.(e) Sol. Barrier: a fence or other obstacle that prevents movement or access.

S11. Ans.(c) Sol. Sniff Out: recognize or detect

S12. Ans.(b) Sol. Mundane: lacking interest or excitement; dull.

S13. Ans.(a) Sol. Hone: refine or perfect (something) over a period of time.

S14. Ans.(b) Sol. Gig: a live performance by a musician or group playing popular or jazz music.
S15. Ans.(d) Sol. Amateur: a person who engages in a pursuit, especially a sport, on an unpaid basis.

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