Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The layers are coming off the mystery surrounding the scams carried out during the entrance exams for the Staff Selection Commission. The case with the malpractices during the CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) board exams is similar. A retired official who once led an investigation into a similar case believes it is a quagmire: the more one digs, the more dirt one is likely to find. Playing with the future of young people is not a new tradition. Let me share a personal story with you.
I completed high school in 1975 at Mainpuri, a small town in Uttar Pradesh. My school was affiliated with the Board of High School and Intermediate Education, Uttar Pradesh. At that time it was reputed to be the biggest board in the country. My centre for exams was at the Sri Chitragupta Inter College. Located in the middle of Mainpuri, the college was surrounded by shops and commercial establishments where the town’s disreputable characters assembled during the exams. Their own educational credentials may have been questionable but when it came to helping others cheat in exams, they enjoyed a cult status. Students who took it easy through the year were eager to grease their palms during the exam season. There were others who spent the entire year worshipping them. Apart from the entertainment, there was a guarantee that they would help them sail through. Some students from the town addressed them as khalifa (don). Before the exam they would strike a deal with an invigilator, peon, teacher, or clerk so that the question paper was sent out immediately after distribution. On the streets outside youngsters awaited the emergence of these question papers. As soon as they received the question paper, it was handed over to a senior student or teacher who would begin solving it. The solved question papers were then wrapped over pebbles and thrown into the school complex, where they reached the recipient. Such was the reputation and fear of these dons that the operation was completed without any hitch. This was the scenario when Emergency had been imposed in the country. Vinoba Bhave, the national saint, had described it as anushasan parva (time for discipline) around the same time.
The situation was tragic for students like us who felt contempt for those cheating in exams. We were hit hard from both sides. On one side was the fear of lagging those who indulged in cheating. On the other, those correcting copies sitting in remote districts marked the papers strictly. They were not wrong. Certain districts were infamous for cheating and every candidate came under suspicion. The innocents got tainted for no fault of their own. Despite all this, I believe those days were better because cheating in exams and corruption in competitive exams was just a social evil. It had not yet assumed the status of an industry. These malpractices have evolved into an established industry in certain North Indian states. When a Nitish Kumar or Yogi Adityanath orders a crackdown on cheating, most students can’t even summon the courage to take the exams. The drop in the number of candidates and results last year in both states was because of these measures.
You may have noticed that immediately after the results certain people alleged that this was a failure of governance. This is a time-tested ploy. During the reign of Kalyan Singh, this lobby was so strong that it even left an adverse impact on the election results. Since then, politicians have avoided intervening in these matters. Not just this, some of them has personally benefited from this. A recent survey conducted by the non-profit Pratham revealed that one in 10 children aged between four years and 18 years could not read textbooks for Class I or Class II in their native language. These were books prescribed for children aged between five and seven. Not just this, 36% of students in rural India didn’t even know the name of their national capital. As many as 57% of students in this age group couldn’t carry out divisions of three-digit numbers. Until when will this catastrophic crisis in our education continue? Why are India’s lawmakers, who are ready to take umbrage at the drop of a hat, silent on this serious matter?
Q1. What is meant by ‘grease their palms’ mentioned in stanza 2?
(c) To shake hands with them in stealing papers
(d) To bribe them by slipping money into their palm.
Q2. Which of the following given statements is correct in context with the passage?
(a) A recent survey conducted by the non-profit Pratham revealed that 1 in 10 children aged between 6 years and 18 years could not read textbooks for Class I or Class II in their nati ;last 3 lines of para 2ve language.
(b) 36% of students in rural India couldn’t carry out divisions of three-digit numbers.
(c) 57% of students in this age group didn’t even know the name of their national capital.
(d) During the reign of Kalyan Singh, this lobby was so strong that it even left an adverse impact on the election results.
Q3. The scenario presented in the paragraph refers to which time frame in the country?
(a) during freedom national struggle
(b) after the emergency was revoked from the country
(c) when emergency was imposed in the country
(d) immediately after the independence
Q4. According to the passage, the students were hit hard from both sides by which of the following?
(I) fear of lagging behind the cheaters
(II) fear of being caught cheating in the examination hall
(III) strict marking by the paper checkers
(d) All (I),(II) and (III)
Q5. According to the passage, cheating malpractices have evolved into an established industry in which regions of the country?
Q6. Choose the word which best expresses the meaning of the following word given in bold in the passage
Q7. Choose the word which best expresses the meaning of the following word given in bold in the passage
Q8. Choose the word which is most opposite to the following word given in bold in the passage
Q9. Choose the word which is most opposite to the following word given in bold in the passage
Q10. Choose the word which best expresses the meaning of the following word given in bold in the passage
Directions (11-15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below them. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
India became the top remittance-receiving country surpassing China, according to a UN report. The ‘One Family at a Time’ study by the UN International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) said about 200 million migrants globally sent more than $445 million in 2017 as remittances to their families, helping to lift millions out of poverty. The study said Asia is the highest originating region with 77 million migrants. The dramatic increase in the amount of money that migrants send home to their families in developing countries is helping to lift millions out of poverty and in attaining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), the study said. The money is spent on food, health care, better educational opportunities and improved housing and sanitation.
Taken together, these individual remittances account for more than three times the combined official development assistance (ODA) from all sources, and more than the total foreign direct investment to almost every low and middle-income country. The report makes several recommendations for improving public policies and outlines proposals for partnerships with the private sector to reduce costs and create opportunities for migrants and their families to use their money more productively. The small amounts of $200 or $300 that each migrant sends home make up about 60 percent of the family’s household income, and this makes an enormous difference in their lives and the communities in which they live.
Q11. Which of the following given statements is correct in context with the passage?
(I) India surpassed China to become top remittance receiving country.
(II) 200 million migrants globally send more than $45 million in 2017 as remittance.
(III) Asia is the highest originating region with 77 million migrants
Q12. The increase in remittance money in developing countries helps to
(I) attain sustainable development goals
(II) lift millions out of poverty
(III) attain proper infrastructure
Q13. Choose the word which best expresses the meaning of the following word given in bold in the passage
Q14. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage
(I) Proper use of remittances is likely to help the economy of the country receiving that money.
(II) Asia is the largest originator of remittances globally.
(III) The report is conducted by UNESCO.
Q15. The remittance amounts sent by each migrant make up about what percent of the family’s household income?
(e) None of the Above
Answer & Explanation
S1. Ans. (d) Sol. Grease someone’s palm: To bribe one discreetly, as by slipping money into their palm.
S2. Ans. (d) Sol. Refer last paragraph.
S3. Ans. (c) Sol. Refer last line of para 2.
S4. Ans. (b) Sol. Refer para 3
S5. Ans. (c) Sol. Refer para 3
S6. Ans. (c) Sol. Hitch: a temporary difficulty or problem.
Impediment: a hindrance or obstruction in doing something.
S7. Ans. (e) Sol. Tainted: affect with a bad or undesirable quality.
S8. Ans. (e) Sol. Alleged: said, without proof, to have taken place or to have a specified illegal or undesirable quality
S9. Ans. (b) Sol. Eager: strongly wanting to do or have something
S10. Ans. (a) Sol. Ploy: a cunning plan or action designed to turn a situation to one’s own advantage Subterfuge: deceit used in order to achieve one’s goal.
S11. Ans. (c) Sol. Refer para 1
S12. Ans. (d) Sol. Refer para 1 “The dramatic increase in the amount of money that migrants send home to their families in developing countries is helping to lift millions out of poverty and in attaining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), the study said.”
S13. Ans. (b) Sol. Endorsement: support, authorization
S14. Ans. (c) Sol. Refer 1st para 5th line.
S15. Ans. (a) Sol. Refer last 3 lines of para 2.