Directions (1-10): Read the following paragraph. Some of the words have been highlighted in bold. Answer the questions based on this paragraph.
The internet has become the integral part of today’s generation of people; from communicating through instant messages and emails to banking, travelling, studying and shopping, internet has touched every aspect of life. With the growing use of the internet by people, protecting important information has become a necessity. A computer that is not having appropriate security controls can be infected with malicious logic and thus any type of information can be accessed in moments. Number of infected Web Pages and malicious websites can be seen every day that infects the computer and allow hackers to gain illegal access to other computer systems.
Hacking of important data, network outages, computer viruses and other cyber related threats affect our lives that range from minor inconvenience to serious incidents. Cyber threats can be caused due to negligence and vulnerabilities, or unintentional accidents. The main objectives of such type of system attackers or hackers are to steal confidential information, to make illegal monetary transactions, to destroy or to change data and the like. System attackers can be terrorists, crackers or recreational hackers. They have a variety of tools that can harm or infect the computer; usually they use malicious logic or virus to gain unauthorized access to a computer. Opening email attachments that carry the virus, clicking malicious links or websites or unintentionally downloading a dangerous program are common ways through which a computer can be infected and data can be stolen.
As the number of data networks, digital applications, as well as internet and mobile users are growing, so do the chances of cyber exploitation and cyber crimes. Even a small mistake in securing data or bad social networking can prove to be extremely dangerous. If accounts are not properly secured, it makes easier for hackers or unauthorized users to spread viruses or social engineered attacks that are designed to steal data and even money. Such types of issues highlight the need for cyber security as an essential approach in protecting and preventing data from being used inappropriately.
In simple language, Cyber Security or Information technology security means protecting data, networks, programs and other information from unauthorized or unintended access, destruction or change. It encompasses all the mechanisms and processes that protect digital equipment, information and records from illegal or unintended access, manipulation or destruction.
In today’s dynamic environment, cyber security has become vital for individuals and families, as well as organizations (such as military, government, business houses, educational and financial institutions, corporations and others) that collect and store a wide range of confidential data on computers and transmit that to other computers across different networks. For families, protection of children and family members from cyber crime has become substantially important. For an individual, protecting information
that could impact social life as well as personal finance is essential. The internet has provided a wide array of learning opportunities, but there are risks too. Photos, videos and other personal information shared by an individual on social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter can be inappropriately used by others may lead to serious and even life-threatening incidents. Social networking sites have become the most popular medium for sharing information and connecting with other people. But these sites have created varied opportunities for cybercrimes, compromised personal identities and information leakage. Therefore, it is important for individuals to understand how to protect against cyber threats, and must also comprehend the difference between virtual and real world. One should learn how to protect computers and personal information from being hacked and should engage in appropriate online behaviour in order to eliminate changes of cyber threats and thereby creating a safer online environment.
Q1. According to the author what does the cyber security means?
(a) Cyber Security means the dispersion of important data and devise a structural engineering that allow easy flow of information
(b) Cyber Security means protecting data, networks, programs and other information from unauthorized or unintended access, destruction or change.
(c) Cyber Security means the blocking of all the websites that are available in free domain
(d) Cyber Security means the Hacking of important data, network outages, computer viruses and other cyber related threats affect our lives that range from minor inconvenience to serious incidents.
(e) None of the above
Q2. According to the author, what is the main reasons behind cyber threats?
(a) the unknown person with malice
(b) due to intelligence, veneration and intentional threats.
(c) due to negligence and vulnerabilities, or unintentional accidents.
(d) by communicating through instant messages and emails to banking, travelling, studying and shopping on internet
(e) None of the above
Q3. What is the downside of Social media, according to the author?
(a) the long hours usage of social media could affect an individual mentally and become the victim of depression
(b) by sharing sensitive information, one can be vulnerable to sudden outburst of emotions
(c) information shared by an individual for socializing purposes can be distorted and can be used for malignant purpose.
(d) the social media owners can steal the information and sell this information for monetary purposes
(e) None of the above
Q4. According to this passage, how the virus gets into the computers?
(a) by saving data and clicking on the desktop
(b) by opening a document file in the search history
(c) by texting online and receiving files on social media platforms
(d) Opening email attachments that carry the virus, clicking malicious links or websites or unintentionally downloading a dangerous program
(e) None of the above
Q5. What will be the apt title for this passage?
(a) life hacks
(b) Cybercrime and hacking
(c) technology and its advantages
(d) technological advances
(e) The impact of social media
Q6. In the following question, find the word that is most similar in the meaning to the word ‘malicious’?
Q7. In the following question, find the word that is most similar in the meaning to the word “illegal”?
Q8. In the following question, find the word that is opposite in the meaning to the word “unauthorized”?
Q9. In the following question, find the word that is opposite in the meaning to the word “appropriate”?
Q10. In the following question, find the word that is most similar in the meaning to the word “unintentional”?
Answer & Explanation