Reading Comprehension Set 158

Directions (1-9): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold in the passage to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

Though the Cold War has ended, selective tactics are still continuing for ensuring the military and economic dominance of developed countries. Various types of technology denial regimes are still being enforced which are now being mainly targeted against developing countries like India.

Today, we in India encounter twin problems. On one side there is a large scale strengthening of our neighbours through supply of arms and clandestine support to their nuclear and missile programmes and on the other side all efforts are being made to weaken our indigenous technology growth through control regimes and dumping of low-tech systems, accompanied with high commercial pitch in critical areas. Growth of indigenous technology and self-reliance are the only answer to the problem.

Thus in the environment around India, the number of missiles and nuclear powers arecontinuously increasing and destructive weapons continue to pile up around us, in spite of arms reduction treaties.

To understand the implications of various types of warfare that may affect us, we need to take a quick look at the evolution of war weaponry and the types of warfare. I am highlighting this point for the reason that in less than a century we could see change in the nature of warfare and its effects on society.

In early years of human history it was mostly direct human warfare. During the twentieth century up to about 1990, the warfare was weapon driven. The weapons used were guns, tanks, aircraft, ships, submarines and the nuclear weapons deployed on land/sea/air and alsoreconnaissance spacecraft. Proliferation of conventional nuclear and biological weapons was at a peak owing to the competition between the superpowers.

The next phase, in a new form, has just started from 1990 onwards. The world has graduated into economic warfare. The means used is control of market forces through high technology. The participating nations, apart from the USA, are Japan, the UK, France, Germany, certain South-East Asia countries and a few others. The driving force is the generation of wealth with certain types of economic doctrine.

The urgent issue we need to address collectively as a nation is, how do we handle the tactics of economic and military dominance in this new form coming from the backdoor? Today technology is the main driver of economic development at the national level. Therefore, we have to develop indigenous technologies to enhance our competitive edge and to generate national wealth in all segments of economy. Therefore, the need of the hour is arm India with technology.

Q1. Why do certain countries use selective tactics against developing countries?

(a) To help developing countries gain military and economic independence

(b) To help developing countries govern themselves and be economically independent

(c) To ally with developing countries to dominate over other developed countries

(d) To curtail their domination over developing countries

(e) None of these

Q2. Which are the issues of great concern that India is facing at present, according to the author of the passage?

(A) The supply of high-tech weaponry by other countries to India’s neighbours who are likely to use the same against India.

(B) Other countries secretly helping India’s neighbours to strengthen their nuclear might.

(C) Obstruction of India’s genuine efforts to develop its own nuclear technology.

(a) (A) & (B) only

(b) (B) & (C) only

(c) (A) & (C) only

(d) All (A), (B) & (C)

(e) None of these

Q3. Enforcement of technology denial regimes by developed countries implies which of the following?

(a) Dominance of developing countries over developed ones

(b) Exploitation of developing nations by the mightier ones

(c) Targeting of developed countries by developing countries

(d) Sympathizing with underprivileged countries

(e) None of these

Q4. The striking difference in warfare before and after 1990 was the shift from

(a) guns, tanks, etc. to nuclear weapons

(b) ships and submarines to spacecrafts

(c) weaponry to economic warfare

(d) economic forces to high technology driven warfare

(e) None of these

Q5. Why according to the author, is it necessary to examine how weaponry and warfare have evolved?

(A) To understand their implications for us.

(B) To learn the rapid changes that have taken place in weaponry and warfare.

(C) To master them and enable us to attack our enemies.

(a) All (A), (B) and (C)

(b) (A) & (B) only

(c) (A) & (C) only

(d) (B) & (C) only

(e) None of these

Q6. According to the author, the most effective way to counter our major problems is to

(A) develop indigenous technologies.

(B) complete with other countries in their warring tactics.

(C) generate national wealth in all segments of economy.

(a) All (A), (B) & (C)

(b) (A) & (B) only

(c) (B) & (C) only

(d) (A) & (C) only

(e) None of these

Q7. What, according to the author, is the solution to our problems in the international field?

(A) Importing up-to-date technology and nuclear equipments from developed countries.

(B) Developing our own in-house technology.

(C) Eliminating dependence on developed countries.

(a) (A) & (B) only

(b) (A) & (C) only

(c) (B) & (C) only

(d) All (A), (B) & (C)

(e) None of these

Q8. What is the general outcome of arms reduction treaties as a whole according to the author of the passage?

(a) They seem to have become totally defunct

(b) They have achieved the desired outcome in most cases

(c) They have resulted in curbing the trade of destructive weapons

(d) Piling up of weapons has significantly reduced due to such treaties

(e) None of these

Q9. What, according to the author, is the immediate problem to be collectively resolved by our country?

(a) To counter the dominance of developed countries through money and muscle power

(b) To eradicate poverty and become economically self reliant

(c) To control the exorbitant rate of population growth

(d) To develop indigenous technology to manufacture mightier weapons

(e) None of these

Directions (10-12): Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word printed in bold as given in the passage.

Q10. Reconnaissance

(a) Investigation

(b) Reserved

(c) Recognizable

(d) Remedy

(e) Attack

Q11. Proliferation

(a) Explosion

(b) Devastation

(c) Discomfiture

(d) Abundance

(e) Extraction

Q12. Evolution

(a) Magnification

(b) Expansion

(c) Progression

(d) Modification

(e) Changing

Directions (13-15): Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word printed in bold as given in the passage.

Q13. Indigenous

(a) Local

(b) Domestic

(c) Abroad

(d) Foreign

(e) Exported

Q14. Dominance:

(a) Aggression

(b) Submission

(c) Assertion

(d) Ignorance

(e) Lethargy

Q15. Continuously:

(a) Illegitimately

(b) Unconditionally

(c) Insensitively

(d) Uninterrupted

(e) Intermittently

Answer & Explanation

S1. Ans.(e)

Sol. None of these


S2. Ans.(d)

Sol. All (A), (B) & (C)


S3. Ans.(b)

Sol. Exploitation of developing nations by the mightier ones


S4. Ans.(e)

Sol. None of these


S5. Ans.(a)

Sol. All (A), (B) & (C)


S6. Ans.(a)

Sol. All (A), (B) & (C)


S7. Ans.(c)

Sol. (B) & (C) only


S8. Ans.(a)

Sol. They seem to have become totally defunct


S9. Ans.(b)

Sol. To eradicate poverty and become economically self reliant


S10. Ans.(a)

Sol.  Investigation


S11. Ans.(d)

Sol.  Abundance


S12. Ans.(d)

Sol.  Modification


S13. Ans.(d)

Sol.  Foreign


S14. Ans.(b)

Sol.  Submission


S15. Ans.(e)

Sol.  Intermittently

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *