Directions (Q. 1-10): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words in the passage are printed in bold to help you locate them easily while answering some of the questions.
Leaders of the 15 European Union Governments resolved to create an area of “freedom, justice and security” across their national frontiers. This would make it harder for criminals to engage in cross border crimes, which include trafficking in human beings, drugs, money laundering and above all keeping out hordes of bogus political asylum seekers from poor countries. These illegal immigrants are seen essentially as “economic migrants”. The EU leaders have agreed on a 10-point plan to crack down on organised crime and create a common system for political asylum seekers. The aim is to strengthen the basic rights of some 320 million EU citizens and long-term non-European residents in the EU. This is also to ensure that the illegal immigrants do not exploit differing legal systems within the EU for their own ends. Years of sustained migration to EU countries generally and Germany particularly has given the impression that the right to political asylum granted in Germany was practically a right to illegal immigration. The West German Government, in preunification years, adopted generous laws related to political asylum, particularly to enable East Germans, under communist rule, to migrate to West Germany. In the process, thousands of North African Arabs, Iranians, Pakistanis, Sri Lankans and citizens of black African countries exploited these to enter Germany. The mounting abuse of the rules to asylum in Germany, the Benelux region and Britain sparked a debate on a new policy on aliens. In Germany, the right of asylum is guaranteed in the Constitution. In other EU States, granting asylum is at the discretion of the local immigration authority. Under the proposed reforms, all the EU States will have common asylum and immigration laws.
With the unification of Germany and the collapse of the Soviet Union and communist rule in Eastern and Central Europe, migration to Western Europe began in earnest. The crises were immensely compounded in the early Nineties by the advent of ethnic and civil wars in the Balkans. Nearly 7-8 million foreigners live in Germany — 9 to 10 per cent of its population; in France about 5 per cent. A quarter of them are from neighbouring EU States. The largest single ethnic minority in Germany are the Turks, who now number nearly two million, and over half of them are born in Germany. The second largest ethnic minority comes from former Yugoslavia and this numbers over a million. There are about 20,000 people of Indian origin in Germany, mainly professionals and students. The illegal immigrants’ poverty and dependence on social welfare facilities have triggered much racism and xenophobia in most European societies. In France, Italy and Austria, the illegal immigrants have trigged a major debate about race issues. With the rising tide of racism, right–wing xenophobic political groups and parties have made impressive electoral gains in recent elections.
The proposed co-operation between 15 member-States on justice and home affairs may pave the way for pan-European cooperation and integration and could defuse xenophobic tensions. The EU leaders have made a commitment to fight serious organised crime and pledged practical steps to boost cooperation across the EU between the police and the prosecutors. A silver lining on the horizon is that a vast majority of the illegal immigrants are young and are in a fast-greying European continent, where, if the present demographic trend continues, there will be more pensioners than taxpayers in the next few decades. Experts point out that with the proposed expansion of the EU, the mass migration from Eastern and Central Europe to Western Europe may continue unabated. The foreigners on their part are expected to fully integrate with host communities and restore West European values, living standards and social conventions. But this will happen only with the emergence of the second and third generation of migrants, who will increasingly identify themselves with the indigenous population. Perhaps, this may herald the decline of racism and xenophobia in European societies.
Q1. Why are the majority of the illegal migrants termed as “economic migrants”?
1) These migrants seek economic benefits in the guise of seeking political asylum.
2) The migrants indulge in cross-border crimes like drug trafficking.
3) The migrants exploit the liberal economy of the asylum-providing country.
4) Migrants make money through laundering.
5) Only 1) and 4)
Q2. What has prompted the EU to make drastic changes in the system of granting political asylum?
1) To create an atmosphere of freedom, fraternity and liberty.
2) To prevent the pillaging of their economy.
3) To check the increase in crime along their frontiers.
4) To ensure a uniform code of law for their own citizens.
5) A deluge of illegal migrants.
Q3. Which of the following statements is/are responsible for aggravating the crises of illegal migration?
(A) The unification of Germany
(B) The breaking up of the USSR.
(C) The proposed expansion of the EU.
1) Only (A)
2) Only (B)
3) Only (C)
4) Only (A) and (B)
5) All (A), (B) and (C)
Q4. What does ‘money laundering’ imply?
1) A launderette deal
2) Financial transaction
3) Disposing of money
4) Financial gain
5) None of these
Q5. What has caused the sudden spurt in xenophobic tensions?
1) Violation of basic rights of the EU citizens
2) The Constitution providing a right to seek political asylum
3) Increase in cross-border crime
4) The unceasing influx of illegal migrants in the EU member-States
5) Ethnic and civil wars raging in the Asian countries
Q6. What measures have the EU taken to curb illegal migration?
1) A 10-point plan that proposes cooperation of the EU members on justice, common asylum and immigration laws
2) A proposed plan to check mass migration from Western Europe to Central and Eastern Europe.
3) The right-wing political parties to make an electoral gain and curb xenophobia
4) The indigenous population and EU citizens to get the upper hand.
5) All the above
Directions (Q. 7-8): Choose the word that is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word given in bold as used in the passage.
3) Foreign intervention
Directions (Q. 9-10): Select the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning of the word as used in the passage.