Directions (Q. 1 -10): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/ phrases have been given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
While it is universally accepted that the end of all education lies in developing the ability to have a meaningful and rewarding engagement at the end of the completion of formal courses, the fact remains that the Indian context is far from satisfactory in terms of gross pass-out and employment mismatch. Commonly classed as the ‘unemployed’, millions of our youth are outside the scope of financial engagement largely because the skills they attain during education have little demand in the employment scenario in India.
This happens to be the greatest cause of worry among all stakeholders since lack of a rewarding engagement at the end of education carries with it the hazard of a ripple de-motivating effect that adversely affects the education process itself. It is common knowledge that Indian education is still oriented towards the services sector with most of the institutions in the system churning out graduates in general streams and subjects. The numbers in this regard are disproportionately high compared to the requirements of such graduates in the country and it is a common sight that most of such graduates end up with a profession which has little to do with the education they attain mostly at state expense. Hence, the common sight of disconcertingly large number of university pass-outs sitting for competitive examinations in the services sector in the country. Not surprisingly, an overwhelming majority of them remain unemployed after exhausting their attempts at securing jobs in the services sector or are forced to adopt a profession that has little to do with their aptitude or interests. While importance of vocational education at the level of schools had been realised as early as the 1950s with the setting up of Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs), it was only with the National Policy of Education, 1986, that a credible and concrete set up was fine-tuned in the context of vocational education in India. The setting up of the National Skill Development Council, the Department of School Education and Literacy’s ‘Technical and Vocational Education and Training initiatives’ (TVET) in schools and the Department of Higher Education’s Technical Education initiatives, have all contributed significantly towards the popularisation of vocational education right from the level of secondary stage of education itself. Though the National Skill Development Policy, 2009 seeks to address issues concerning the vocational education sector in the country, most interventions required in this sector are essentially long-term ones requiring a simultaneousoverhaul of vocational education curricula according to industry needs; popularisation of vocational education among entrants at the higher secondary stage; development of a viable and robust training mechanism for vocational education teachers in schools, and increased industry-institution interface in vocational education. Also, a large section of the population still consider a general education degree more acceptable socially than a vocational education degree in spite of the fact that vocational education offers greater chances of employment in the short and medium run.
While most issues have received attention from governments and policy planners, vocational education still suffers from an apathy caused partly by institutional neglect as also the weakness of the general population to go for general degree courses catering exclusively to the services sector. This mismatch carries enormous economic costs through wastage of scarce economic resources and social costs with an increasingly unmanageable number of unemployable general education graduates. The root cause for this is that vocational education has been considered as an appendage to the general education framework in the country, the idea being that vocational education is meant to absorb spill-overs. A dedicated vocational education policy coupled with provision for adequate resources and active industry participation can reverse the general neglect vocational education has faced in the country since long.
Q1. What does the author mean by ripple demotivation effect, according to the passage?
1) Demotivation in the field of educational institution due to lack of funds.
2) A vicious cycle in which students are demotivated due to unemployment.
3) Education demotivates the stakeholders for some times.
4) The education system gets demotivated in imparting skills.
5) Other than given options
Q2. Which of the following did not promote the vocational education?
1) National Skill Development Council
2) Department of School Education
3) Literacy’s Technical and Vocational Education and Training
4) National Policy of Education
5) Other than given options
Q3. Indian education is mainly inclined towards
1) Primary sector
2) Agricultural sector
3) Manufacturing sector
4) Service sector or Tertiary sector
5) Secondary sector
Q4. Which of the following statement is false in the context of the given passage?
1) The education attained by the graduates are not productive and it is mostly attained at state’s cost.
2) The pass out are not able to get jobs.
3) The unemployed youths are burden to government.
4) Mostly pass out are involved in the jobs which reduces their productivity
5) Other than given options
Q5. Which of the following points is/are suggested by the author to implement vocational education?
1) A committed vocational educational policy should be implemented.
2) Try to meet the need of society.
3) Strengthening University Industry Interactions.
4) Only 1) and 3)
5) All 1), 2) and 3)
Q6. Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘churning’ as used in the passage?
Q7. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘entrants’ as used in the passage?
Q8. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘exclusively’ as used in the passage?
Q9. Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘overhaul’ as used in the passage?
Q10. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘appendage’ as used in the passage?