Strong & Weak Arguments (1)

Directions (1-5): In making decisions about important questions, it is desirable to be able to distinguish between ‘strong’ arguments and ‘weak’ arguments. ‘Strong’ arguments are those which are both important and directly related to the question. ‘Weak’ arguments are those which are of minor importance and also may not be directly related to the question or may be related to a trivial aspect of the question.

Each question below is followed by three arguments numbered (A), (B) and (C). You have to decide which of the arguments is a ‘strong’ argument and which is a ‘weak’ argument.
Q1. Statement: Should there be a cap on drawing groundwater for irrigation purposes in India?
Arguments:
(A) No, irrigation is of prime importance for food production in India and it is heavily dependent on ground water in many parts of the country.
(B) Yes, water levels have gone down to alarmingly low levels in some parts of the country where irrigation is primarily dependent on groundwater, which may lead to serious environmental consequences.
(C) Yes, India just cannot afford to draw groundwater any further as the international agencies have cautioned India against it.
(a) Only (A) and (B) are strong
(b) Only (B) and (C) are strong
(c) Only (A) and (C) are strong
(d) All(A), (B) and (C) are strong
(e) None of these
 
Q2. Statement: Should there be a complete ban on setting up thermal power plants in India?
Arguments:
(A) Yes, this is the only way to arrest further addition to environmental pollution.
(B) No, there is a huge shortage of electricity in most parts of the country and hence generation of electricity needs to be augmented.
(C) No, many developed countries continue to set up thermal power plants in their countries.
(a) None is strong
(b) Only (A) is strong
(c) Only (B) is strong
(d) Only (C) is strong
(e) Only either (A) or (B) is strong
 
Q3. Statement: Should there be only few banks in place of numerous smaller banks in India?
Arguments:
(A). Yes. This will help secure the investor’s money as these big banks will be able to withstand intermittent market related shocks.
(B). No. A large number of people will lose their jobs as after the merger many employees will be redundant.
( C). Yes. This will help consolidate the entire banking industry and will lead to healthy competition.
(a) None is strong
(b) Only I and II are strong
(c) Only II and III are strong
(d) Only I and III are strong
(e) All are strong
 
Q4. Statement: Should road repair work in big cities be carried out only late at night?
Arguments
(A) No, this way the work will never get completed.
(B) No, there will be an unnecessary use of electricity.
(C) Yes, the commuters will face a lot of problems due to repair work during the day.
(a) None is strong
(b) Only A is strong
(c) Only C is strong
(d) B and C are strong
(e) A and B are strong
 
Q5. Statement: Should all the deemed universities be derecognized and attached to any of the central or state universities in India?
Arguments:
(A) Yes, many of these deemed universities do not perform to their required standards of a full-fledged university and hence the level of education is compromised.
(B) No, these deemed universities have been able to introduce innovative courses suitable to the requirement of various industries as they are free from strict government controls.
(C) Yes, many such universities are basically money-spinning activities and education takes a backseat in these institutions.
(a) A and B are strong
(b) B and C are strong
(c) A and C are strong
(d) All are strong
(e) None of these
 
Directions (6-13): Each question below is followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a ‘strong’ argument and which is a ‘weak’ argument.
Give answer: 
(a) if only argument I is strong.
(b) if only argument II is strong.
(c) if either I or II is strong.
(d) if neither I nor II are strong.
(e) if both I and II are strong.
 
Q6. Statement: Should the teenagers be denied access to the Internet?
Arguments:
I. Yes, most of the children, particularly the teenagers, are found indulging in accessing pornographic contents.
II. No, denying access to the Internet would mean denying access to a lot of useful information; instead the access may be controlled.
 
Q7. Statement: Should computer education be made a compulsory subject at school level by the Government?
Arguments:
I. No, it may be difficult to teach computers in the schools located in rural parts of the country.
II. Yes, it is difficult to function without computer in the era of modernization.
 
Q8. Statement: should graduation be made minimum educational qualification for entry-level jobs in any public sector organisation?
Arguments:
I. yes, graduates always perform better than non-graduates by virtue of their higher level of education. 
II. No, there are quite a few people who cannot afford to remain unemployed till the completion of graduation and are capable of performing equally well as the graduate candidates.
 
Q9. Statement: Should there be compulsory medical examination of both the man and the woman before they marry each other? 
Arguments
I. No. This is an intrusion to the privacy of an individual and hence cannot be tolerated.
II. Yes. This will substantially reduce the risk of giving birth to children with serious ailments. 
 
Q10. Statement: Should all the professional colleges in India be encouraged to run their own courses without affiliation to any university? 
Arguments
I. Yes, this is the only way to create more opportunities for those who seek professional training.
II. No, this will dilute the quality of professional training as all such colleges may not be equipped to conduct such courses.
 
Q11. Statement: Should there be a ceiling on the salary of top executives of MNC’s in our country? 
Arguments
I. Yes, otherwise it would lead to unhealthy competition and our own industry would not be able to withstand that 
II. No, with the accent on liberalization of economy, any such move would be counter-productive. Once the economy picks up, this disparity will be reduced. 
 
Q12. Statement: Should India encourage exports, when most things are insufficient for internal use itself? 
Arguments
I. Yes, we have to earn foreign exchange to pay for our imports. 
II. No, even selective encouragement would lead to shortages. 
 
Q13. Statement: Should there be only one rate of interest for term deposits of varying durations in banks? 
Arguments: 
I. No, people will refrain money for longer duration resulting into reduction of liquidity level of banks. 
II. Yes, this will be much simpler for the common people and they may be encouraged to keep more money in banks. 
 
Q14. Statement: Should the rule of wearing helmet for both driver and pillion rider while driving a motorbike be enforced strictly? 
Arguments
I. Yes, it is a rule and should be followed strictly by all.
II. No, each individual knows how to protect his own life and it should be left to his discretion.
III. No, it does not ensure safety as only the head is protected and rest of the body is not.
IV. Yes, it is necessity as head, being most sensitive organ, is protect by the helmet. 
(a) None is strong
(b) I and III are strong
(c) I and IV are strong
(d) II and IV are strong
(e) All are strong
 
Q15. Statement: should the income generated out of agricultural activities be taxed? 
Arguments
I. No, mostly farmers suffer from natural calamities so agricultural activities should not be taxed. 
II. Yes, majority of the population is dependent on agriculture and hence their income should be taxed to augment the resources. 
III. Yes, many big farmers earn much more than the majority of the service earners and they should be taxed to remove the disparity. 
(a) All are strong
(b) I and II are strong
(c) I and III are strong
(d) All are strong
(e) None of these

Answers

1. Ans.(a)
Sol. (A) is strong as it addresses the problem of food scarcity. (B) is strong as environment is a very important issue. (C) is weak because “the caution” part is neither convincing nor mature.

2. Ans.(c)
Sol. (A) is weak because it is not true: note the use of ‘only’ (B) is strong as the country’s power needs can’t be ignored. (C) is weak as it is argument by example.

3. Ans.(a)
Sol. Argument (A) is weak because it is vague.
Argument (B) is weak because it is not true.
Argument ( C) is also weak because it does not provide convincing reason.

4. Ans.(c)
Sol. Argument A is not strong due to the word ‘never’. If work is done at night, it cannot be said that there is an unnecessary use of electricity as it is very essential. Argument C is strong because at daytime commuters will face a lot of problems.

5. Ans.(c)
Sol. Argument A and C are strong because many deemed universities are not performing to the required standard, so level of education is decreasing and these universities are basically money oriented.

6. Ans.(b)
Sol. Argument I is weak because pornographic contents creates a bad impact on teenagers which is undesirable but we have to create a mechanism by which teenagers can not access pornographic contents on the internet.
Argument II is strong because it states genuine reason.

7. Ans.(b)
Sol.Argument I is weak because it does not state genuine reason.
Argument II is strong because it is true.

8. Ans.(d)
Sol.Argument I is weak because it is not necessarily true.
Argument II is also weak because it is vague.

9. Ans.(b)
Sol. Argument I is weak because it is vague.
Argument II is strong because it states genuine reason. 

10. Ans.(b)
Sol. The use of ‘only’ keyword in Argument I makes it weak.
Argument II is strong because it advocates the quality of professional courses.

11. Ans.(b)
Sol. Argument I is weak because it does not provide sufficient reason. 
Argument II is strong because it is true. 

12. Ans.(d)
Sol. Argument I is weak as it is vague. 
Argument II is also weak because it is not true. 

13. Ans.(d)
Sol. Argument I is weak as it is vague. 
Argument II is also weak because it is not true. 

14. Ans.(c)
Sol. Argument I and IV are strong because the rule of wearing helmet for both driver and pillion rider while driving a motorbike should be followed strictly by all. It protects our head which is most sensitive organ of human body.

15. Ans.(c)
Sol. Arguments I and III are strong because many farmers earn more money than service class people and a huge among of tax can be collected if income tax is implemented on farmers and as mostly farmers suffer from natural calamities so, making agricultural activities under the tax boundary would not be in favour of farmers.

 

 

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